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زبان انگلیسی: بخش (passive (grammer

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زبان انگلیسی: بخش (passive (grammer

به نام خدا

 

زبان انگلیسی: بخش passive (grammer)

 

 

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Form
to be
 + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:
- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence
- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out)

Active:

Peter

builds

a house.

Description: http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/images/tenses/passiv_blank.gifDescription: Passiv

Passive:

A house

is built

by Peter.

 


Examples

Active

Peter

builds

a house.

Simple Present

 

Passive:

A house

is built

by Peter.



Active:

Peter

built

a house.

Simple Past

 

Passive:

A house

was built

by Peter.



Active:

Peter

has built

a house.

Present Perfect

 

Passive:

A house

has been built

by Peter.



Active:

Peter

will build

a house.

will-future

 

Passive:

A house

will be built

by Peter.



Active:

Peter

can build

a house.

Modals

 

Passive:

A house

can be built

by Peter.

 

***********************************

 

other Examples of Passive Description: Level 2

Tense

Subject

Verb

Object

Simple Present

Active:

Rita

writes

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

is written

by Rita.

Simple Past

Active:

Rita

wrote

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

was written

by Rita.

Present Perfect

Active:

Rita

has written

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

has been written

by Rita.

Future I

Active:

Rita

will write

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

will be written

by Rita.

Hilfsverben

Active:

Rita

can write

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

can be written

by Rita.

Examples of Passive Description: Level 4

Tense

Subject

Verb

Object

Present Progressive

Active:

Rita

is writing

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

is being written

by Rita.

Past Progressive

Active:

Rita

was writing

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

was being written

by Rita.

Past Perfect

Active:

Rita

had written

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

had been written

by Rita.

Future II

Active:

Rita

will have written

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

will have been written

by Rita.

Conditional I

Active:

Rita

would write

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

would be written

by Rita.

Conditional II

Active:

Rita

would have written

a letter.

Passive:

A letter

would have been written

by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Description: Level 3

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

 

Subject

Verb

Object 1

Object 2

Active:

Rita

wrote

a letter

to me.

Passive:

A letter

was written

to me

by Rita.

Passive:

I

was written

a letter

by Rita.

.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. Thats why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

 

******************

 

بخش سوالات: شماره 1

Fill in the spaces with the correct words to complete the passive sentences. 

1. I have eaten pizza. 
Pizza  by me. 

2. She took my bags into the house. 
My bags  into the house by her. 

3. The boys are washing the car.
The car  by the boys. 

4. Kevin had seen the movie before. 
The movie  by Kevin before. 

5. I was cooking dinner. 
Dinner  by me. 

6. We should find another radio. 
Another radio  by us. 

7. Julie will have finished the project before next week. 
The project  by Julie before next week. 

8. Someone had stolen the computer. 
The computer 

9. You should have fixed your car. 
Your car  by you. 

10. Tony must have broken the glass.
The glass  by Tony. 

*******************

 بخش سوالات: شماره 2

 

Q1 - Wine ____ grapes.


Q2 - The bridge _____.

Q3 - These shoes ____ of leather.

Q4 - I can't see it- it must ____.

Q5 - Their house ____ last week.

Q6 - Do you think the project _____ by Friday?

Q7 - The tablets _____ with food.

Q8 - It ____ by courier this morning.

Q9 - It _____ with at the moment.

Q10 - It ____ last week.

Q11 - It ____ Mexico.

Q12 - It ____ next week.

Q13 - It ____ by next Friday.

Q14 - She ____ promoted again.

Q15 - They are ______ by the police at the moment.


Click here for the answer sheet

****************

 بخش سوالات: شماره 3

Please put the correct passive form into the box.

1. Many people begin new projects in January.
New projects  by many people in January.

2. They called the customers yesterday afternoon.
The customers  yesterday afternoon.

3. We will give you a discount if you buy 100.
A discount  if you buy 100.

4. I have improved the presentation.
The presentation  .

5. The president of the company is listening to his proposal.
His proposal  to by the president of the company.

6. We have produced paper products since 1994.
Paper products  here since 1994.

7. All employees will read the memo.
The memo  by all employees.

8. My colleague sold the last one yesterday.
The last one  yesterday.

9. At this moment our boss is speaking to Sarah about always arriving late.
At this moment Sarah  to about always arriving late.

10. Many hospitals use our samples.
Our samples  by many hospitals.

*****************

 بخش سوالات: شماره 4


 

 

The Passive Voice.

 



1 In a sentence that has a verb in the passive voice, one will most likely NOT find:
  a subject.
  an indirect object.
  a direct object.
  a verb other than the verb "to be."
       

2 The dog is biting the cat on the tail.
A passive rendering of this sentence would be:
  The cat is being bitten on the tail by the dog.
  The cat's tail is being bitten by the dog.
  The cat is biting the dog on the tail.
  The cat is being bitten by the dog on the tail.
       

3 Jim told Steve all the answers to the test.
A passive rendering of this would be
  Steve was told all the answers to the test by Jim.
  All the answers to the test were told to Steve by Jim.
  All the test's answers were told to Steve by Jim.
  Jim was told by Steve about all the answers to the test.
       

4 Cicero gave Caesar the gift of high praise.
A passive rendering of this would be:
  The gift of high praise gave Caesar to Cicero.
  The gift of high praise had been given to Caesar by Cicero.
  Caesar was given the gift of high praise by Cicero.
  The gift of high praise was given to Caesar by Cicero.
       

5 It is said that no one who loves his country can be expected to kill its citizens.
The passive verb form(s) here would be:
  None.
  "is said"
  "is said" and "be expected"
  "loves" and "to kill"
       

6 In converting an active sentence to a passive one in Latin, the subject of the active sentence must become:
  either an ablative of agent or an ablative of means or instrument.
  an ablative of agent.
  a dative of indirect object or personal interest.
  nothing, since it cannot go with a passive verb.
       

7 The passive form of "laudâmus" differs only:
  in meaning.
  by a single letter and in its meaning.
  by tense, person, and meaning.
  by a single letter.
       

8 The passive of monês would be:
  monêbis
  monêtis
  monêris
  monueris
       

9 The passive of laudâbâtis would be:
  laudâbiminî
  laudâbantur
  laudâminî
  laudâbâminî
       

10 The passive of docêbit would be:
  docêtur
  docêbitur
  docêbâtur
  docentur
       

11 To distinguish the tense markers for the first and second conjugations, one uses the device:
  "Ya BUNT in the future and ya BANTer in the past."
  UNUS NAUTA
  "We are all imperfect sheep."
  called the HUMAN MEMORY.
       

12 Discipulî omnês magistrum bonum amant.
In the passive, this would be:
  Omnis magister bonus discipulîs amâtur.
  Magister bonus ab omnibus discipulîs amâtur.
  Discipulî omnês a magistrô bonô amantur.
  Omnis magister bonus â discipulîs amâtur.
       

13 Et Graecî et Rômânî mê laudant.
In the passive, this would be:
  Et Graecî et Rômânî â mê laudantur.
  Et â Graecîs et â Rômânîs laudor.
  Et Grâecîs et Rômânîs laudor.
       
       

14 Omnês scientiam bonârum artium câram habent.
In the passive, this would be:
  Bonae artês scientiae cârae ab omnibus habentur.
  Scientia bonârum artium ab omnibus cârîs habêtur.
  Scientia bonârum artium ab omnibus câra habêtur.
  Scientia bonârum artium ominibus câra habêtur.
       

15 Mors etiam facilis multôs terret.
And now in the passive...
  Multî morte etiam facilî terrentur.
  Multî mortem etiam facilem terrent.
  Multî môre etiam facilî terrentur.
  Mors etiam facilis a multîs terrêtur.
       

16 Et amâre et amârî superârî ab Amôre sunt.
This means...
  Both to love and to be loved are to be overpowered by Love.
  Loving and being loved are over and above Love itself.
  Both to love and be loved by Love are superior.
       
       

17 Bonum est ab omnibus docêrî.
This means...
  It is good to learn from everyone.
  It is good to teach from every kind of person.
  It is good to be taught by everyone.
       
       

18 Mors nôn terrêbit dum nâtûra animî habêtur mortâlis, sî bene côgitâs.
This means...
  Death will not frighten as long as the soul has a mortal nature, if you think well [about it].
  Death will be terrifying when you have a mortal soul by nature, if you think well [about it].
  Death will not terrify a soul mortal by nature if the soul thinks well [about it].
  Death will not frighten as long as the nature of the soul is considered mortal, if you think well [about it].
       

19 Mankind is moved by many angers, but the anger that moves kings is a great danger.
  Genus hûmânum multîs îrîs movêtur, sed îra quae rêgês movet magnum perîculum est.
  Genus hûmânum multâs îrâs movet, sed îra quam rêgês movent magnum perîculum est.
  Genus hûmânum ad multâs îrâs movêtur, sed îra quâ rêgês moventur magnum perîculum est.
       
       

20 Dum urbs flâmmîs acribus dêlêbâtur, rêgîna illa misera sine rêge per viâs vidêbâtur.
  "While the city was being given to the fierce flames, that wretched queen was looking for the king along the streets."
  "While the city was being destroyed by fierce flames, that wretched queen was seen without the king along the streets."
  "While they destroyed the city with fierce flames, they saw that wretched queen without the king along the streets."
       
       

***************

 بخش سوالات: شماره 5


~ Passive Voice Quiz (1) ~

 

 

Tick the right passive form from the answers given.:

 

1)  Someone is viewing this page right now. This page is viewed right now by someone This page is being viewed by someone right now 
This page is being viewed right now.

2)  She is used to cleaning the floor everyday. 
The floor is used to clean by she everyday. 
The floor is used to being cleaned everyday. 
The floor is used to be clean everyday.

3)  They will offer her the award soon. 
She will be offered the award soon. 
The award will be offered to her by they soon. 
She will be offered them the award soon

4)  People can use this device easily. 
This device can to be used easily 
This device can to be easily used. 
This device can be used easily.

5)  They should reconsider the decision. 
The decision should to be reconsidered. 
The decision should be reconsidered. 
The decision should be reconsider by they.

6)  Someone will speak to the manager. 
The manager will be spoken to. 
The manager will to be spoken to. 
The manager will be spoken.

7)  They haven't brought the book back yet. 
The book haven't been brought back yet. 
The book haven't been brought yet back. 
The book hasn't been brought back yet.

8)  They are going to buy the ship. 
The ship is being gone to be bought. 
The ship is going to buy. 
The ship is going to be bought.

9)  They don't use machines there. 
Machines there are not used 
Machines are not used there. 
Machines don't be used there.

10)  We made mistakes. 
Mistakes was made. 
Mistakes were made. 
Mistakes had been made
The Passive Voice        

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